A Complete Analytical Study Investigation On Why Ethnic Groups Rebel Element 11 References


Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism.

London: Verso.

Baruah, Sanjib. 1994. “The State and Separatist Militancy in Assam: Winning a Battle and Losing the

War?” Asian Survey 34, no. ten: 863-77.

Beck, Nathaniel, and Jonathan N. Katz. 2001. “Throwing Out the Child with the Bath Water: A Comment

on Green, Kim, and Yoon.” International Organization 55, no. two (Spring): 487-95.

Beck, Nathaniel, Jonathan N. Katz, and Richard Tucker. 1998. “Taking Time Seriously: Time-Series–

Cross-Section Evaluation with a Binary Dependent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science

42, no. four: 1260-88.

Beissinger, Mark R. 2002. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Birnir, Jَhanna Kristيn. 2007. Ethnicity and Electoral Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blimes, Rand. 2006. “The Indirect Effect of Ethnic Heterogeneity on the Likelihood of Civil War Onset.”

Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 4: 536-47.

Brancati, Dawn. 2006. “Decentralization: Fueling the Fire or Dampening the Flames of Ethnic Conflict

and Secessionism.” International Organization 60, no. 3: 651-85.

Brass, Paul. 1991. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. Newbury Park: Sage.

Breuilly, John. 1994. Nationalism and the State, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New

Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——. 2004. Ethnicity without having Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Brubaker, Rogers, and David D. Laitin. 1998. “Ethnic and Nationalist Violence.” Annual Evaluation of

Sociology 24: 423-52.


Buhaug, Halvard, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Jan Ketil Rّd. 2008. “Disaggregating Ethno-Nationalist Civil

Wars: A Dyadic Test of Exclusion Theory.” International Organization 62, no. 3 (July): 531-51.

Cederman, Lars-Erik. 1997. Emergent Actors in World Politics: How States and Nations Create and

Dissolve. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, Halvard Buhaug, and Jan Ketil Rّd. 2009. “Ethno-Nationalist Dyads and Civil

War: A GIS-Primarily based Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53, no. four: 496-525.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, and Luc Girardin. 2007. “Beyond Fractionalization: Mapping Ethnicity onto

Nationalist Insurgencies.” American Political Science Evaluation 101, no. 1: 173-85.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, Luc Girardin, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2009. “Ethnonationalist Triads:

Assessing the Influence of Kin Groups on Civil Wars.” World Politics 61, no. 3 (July): 403-37.

Cetinyan, Rupen. 2002. “Ethnic Bargaining in the Shadow of Third-Party Intervention.” International

Organization 56, no three: 645-77.

Chima, Jugdep S. 1994. “The Punjab Crisis: Governmental Centralization and Akali-Center Relations.”

Asian Survey 34, no. 10: 847-62.

Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler. 2004. “Greed and Grievance in Civil Wars.” Oxford Economic Papers

56, no. 4: 563-95.

Cohen, Frank S. 1997. “Proportional versus Majoritarian Ethnic Conflict Management in Democracies.”

Comparative Political Studies 30, no. five: 607-30.

Cunningham, David E., Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Idean Salehyan. 2009. “It Takes Two: A Dyadic

Analysis of Civil War Duration and Outcome.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53, no. 4: 570-597.

Decalo, Samuel. 1980. “Chad: The Roots of Center-Periphery Strife.” African Affairs 79, no. 317: 490-


De Figueiredo, Rui, and Barry Weingast. 1999. “The Rationality of Worry: Political Opportunism and

Ethnic Conflict.” In Barbara Walter and Jack Snyder, eds., Civil Wars, Insecurity, and

Intervention. New York: Columbia University Press.

DeNardo, James. 1985. Energy in Numbers: The Political Method of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton:

Princeton University Press.

Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political

Science Assessment 97, no. 1: 75-90.

Fox, Jonathan. 2000. “The Effects of Religious Discrimination on Ethno-Religious Protest and

Rebellion.” Journal of Conflict Studies 20, no. 1.

Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, Margareta Sollenberg, and Hهvard Strand.

2002. “Armed Conflict 1946-2001: A New Dataset.” Journal of Peace Study 39, no. 5: 615-


Gurr, Ted Robert. 1993a. Minorities at Threat: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington,

D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.

——. 1993b. “Why Minorities Rebel: A Worldwide Analysis of Communal Mobilization and Conflict

Considering that 1945.” International Political Science Evaluation 14, no. 2: 161-201

——. 2000. Peoples versus States: Minorities at Danger in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: United

States Institute of Peace Press.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hechter, Michael. 2001. Containing Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hechter, Michael, and Dina Okamoto. 2001. “Political Consequences of Minority Group Formation.”

Annual Review of Political Science 4: 189-215.

Hegre, Hهvard, Tanja Ellingsen, Scott Gates, and Nils Petter Gleditsch. 2001. “Toward a Democratic

Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Alter, and Civil War, 1816-1992.” American Political

Science Assessment 95, no. 1: 33-48.

Hegre, Hهvard, and Nicholas Sambanis. 2006. “Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Outcomes on Civil War

Onset.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. four: 508-35.

Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jackman, Robert W. 1993. Power with no Force. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Jenne, Erin K. 2007. Ethnic Bargaining: The Paradox of Minority Empowerment. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell

University Press.

Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——. 2007. Civil Wars. In Carles Boix and Susan Carol Stokes, eds., The Oxford Handbook of

Comparative Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kalyvas, Stathis N., and Matthew Adam Kocher. 2007. “How ‘Free’ Is Totally free Riding in Civil Wars?

Violence, Insurgency, and the Collective Action Issue.” World Politics 59, no.2 (January): 177-


Kalyvas, Stathis N., and Nicholas Sambanis. 2005. “Bosnia’s Civil War: Origins and Violence

Dynamics.” In Paul Collier and Nicholas Sambanis, eds. Understanding Civil War: Evidence and

Evaluation, vol. two. Washington, D.C.: Planet Bank.

Kedourie, Elie. 1960. Nationalism. New York: Praeger.

Kemper, Theodore D. 1978. A Social Interaction Theory of Emotions. New York: John Wiley.

Laitin, David D. 1995. “National Revivals and Violence.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 36, no. 1:


Lake, David A., and Donald Rothchild, eds. 1998. The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Worry,

Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lemarchand, René. 1994. Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University


Lund, Michael S. 2005. “Greed and Grievance Diverted: Macedonia Avoided Civil War, 1990-2001.” In

Paul Collier and Nicholas Sambanis, eds. Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, vol. 2.

Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


McCarthy, John , and Mayer N. Zald. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial

Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82, no. six: 1212-41.

Makdisi, Samir, and Richard Sadaka. 2005. “The Lebanese Civil War, 1975-90.” In Paul Collier and

Nicholas Sambanis, eds. Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Evaluation, vol. two. Washington,

D.C.: Planet Bank.

Mehler, Andreas. 1993. Kamerun in der ؤra Biya. Bedingungen, erste Schritte und Blockaden einer

demokratischen Transition. Hamburg: Institut für Afrika-Kunde.

Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Min, Brian, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Andreas Wimmer. 2009. “Ethnic Exclusion, Financial Growth, and

Civil War.” Manuscript, UCLA.

Montalvo, José G., and Marta Reynal-Querol. 2005. “Ethnic Polarization, Prospective Conflict, and Civil

Wars.” American Economic Evaluation 95, no. three: 796-816.

Olzak, Susan. 2006. The Global Dynamics of Racial and Ethnic Mobilization. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford

University press.

Petersen, Roger. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Worry, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-

Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Posen, Barry R. 1993. “The Safety Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” In Michael E. Brown, ed., Ethnic

Conflict and International Security. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa.” American Journal of Political

Science 48, no. 4: 849-63.

Regan, Patrick, and Daniel Norton. 2005. “Greed, Grievance, and Mobilization in Civil Wars.” Journal of

Conflict Resolution 49, no. 3: 319-36.

Rothschild, Joseph. 1981. Ethnopolitics: A Conceptual Framework. New York: Columbia University



Rydgren, Jens. 2007. “The Energy of the Previous: A Contribution to a Cognitive Sociology of Ethnic

Conflict.” Sociological Theory 25, no. three: 225-44.

Saideman, Stephen M. 2002. “Discriminating in International Relations: Analyzing External Assistance for

Ethnic Groups.” Journal of Peace Analysis 39, no. 1: 27-50.

Saideman, Stephen M., and R. William Ayres. 2000. “Figuring out the Causes of Irredentism: Logit

Analyses of Minorities at Threat Data from the 1980s and 1990s.” Journal of Politics 62, no. four:


Salehyan, Idean. 2009. Rebels without having Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in Globe Politics. Ithaca,

N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Sambanis, Nicholas. 2001. “Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Identical Causes? A Theoretical

and Empirical Inquiry.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45, no. three: 259-82.

——. 2004. “What Is Civil War? Conceptual and Empirical Complexities of an Operational

Definition.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48, no. 3: 814-58.

Tarrow, Sidney. 2007. “Inside Insurgencies: Politics and Violence in an Age of Civil War.” Perspectives

on Politics 5, no. 3: 587-600.

Tarrow, Sidney, and Charles Tilly. 2006. Contentious Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tir, Jaroslav, and Michael Jasinski. 2008. “Domestic-Level Diversionary Theory of War: Targeting

Ethnic Minorities.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 52, no. five: 641-64.

Toft, Monica Duffy. 2003. The Geography of Ethnic Violence: Identity, Interests, and the Indivisibility of

Territory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Turner, Jonathan H., and Jan E. Stets. 2005. The Sociology of Feelings. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Vreeland, James Raymond. 2008. “The Impact of Political Regime on Civil War: Unpacking Anocracy.”

Journal of Conflict Resolution 52, no. 3: 401-25.

Waldmann, Peter. 2004. “The Asymmetry amongst the Dynamics of Violence and the Dynamics of

Peace: The Case of Civil Wars.” In Andreas Wimmer, Richard Goldstone, Donald L. Horowitz,

Ulrike Joras, and Conrad Schetter, eds., Facing Ethnic Conflicts: Toward a New Realism. Lanham:

Rowman and Littlefield.

Walter, Barbara. 2004. “Does Conflict Beget Conflict? Explaining Recurring Civil War.” Journal of

Peace Analysis 41, no. three: 371-88.

——. 2006a. “Info, Uncertainty, and the Selection to Secede.” International Organization 60,

no. 1:105-35.

——. 2006b. “Constructing Reputation: Why Governments Fights Some Separatists but Not Others.”

American Journal of Political Science 50, no. two: 313-30.

Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretative Sociology. Berkeley: University of

California Press.

Weidmann, Nils B. 2009. “Geography as Motivation and Chance: Group Concentration and Ethnic

Conflict.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53, no. four: 526-543 .

Weiner, Myron. 1971. “The Macedonian Syndrome: An Historical Model of International Relations and

Political Development.” Globe Politics 23, no. four (October): 665-83.

Wimmer, Andreas. 2002. Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

——. 2008. “The Creating and Unmaking of Ethnic Boundaries. A Multi-level Process Theory.”

American Journal of Sociology 113, no. four: 970-1022.

Wimmer, Andreas, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Brian Min. 2009. “Ethnic Politics and Armed Conflict: A

Configurational Evaluation.” American Sociological Overview 74, no. 2: 316-37.

Wimmer, Andreas, and Brian Min. 2006. “From Empire to Nation-State. Explaining Wars in the Modern day

Planet, 1816-2001.” American Sociological Review 71, no. six: 867-97.

Young, Crawford. 1976. The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Sabung Ayam
The evolution of American protest music

Music is a essential form of expression in American politics — specifically in instances of political and social unrest.

Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO

Dating back to the early days of colonization, American protest songs have shifted in style and kind. The earliest protest songs have been written in an era of oral tradition, exactly where simplicity and familiarity have been needed to make music the music catch on.

The invention of sound recording subsequent mass distribution on the radio changed the way that society interacted with protest music. Now the songs did not necessarily want to be so catchy, or based on melodies that people currently knew. That thread led to an explosion of the art form, with artists from jazz, gospel, folk and many other backgrounds contributing to the protest music canon.

In the 1980s, the advent of music video on tv opened up a new medium of artistic expression. Now there was a visual element to add to a video — the filmed content material as potent as the music itself in directing discourse.

In the modern day era, interactivity reigns supreme. Regardless of whether it is a clever deliverance of a hashtag, or multiplatform virality, protest music has adapted to the era by employing modern day tools to increase the point of views of artists.

You can read much more on the history behind these songs and many more in this write-up here by Vox.com employees writer Bridgett Henwood.

Also, if you enjoyed this piece, you may possibly be interested in 33 Revolutions per Minute by Dorian Lynskey — it was a great resource in the creation of this content material.

Vox.com is a news web site that aids you cut by way of the noise and comprehend what’s actually driving the events in the headlines. Verify out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on almost everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app.

Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE
Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H
Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Sabung Ayam