Hawk moths can beat their wings powerfully enough to hover in the air like hummingbirds. The world’s largest moth is the Attacus Atlas of Southeast Asia – a species within the Saturnidae family – and is just about as large as a set of human hands – they are sometimes misconceived for bats at nighttime and the flapping of their wings is essentially audible to human ears. The rare Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing (Ornithoptera Alexandrae) from Papua New Guinea is the largest butterfly in the world – it sports a wingspan of ten inches. The scales of butterfly wings are bendable and self-cleaning! Butterfly wing colors commonly modify hue – or even color – when damp. Pigments of the scales on their wings become visible either from chemical pigments such as melanin or from plants and waste that develop during transformation. Butterfly wing scales are formed by bulbous, altered feathers. Depending on the spacing between the scales of a butterfly’s wings, reflecting light waves interface to the extent that numerous wavelengths are cancelled out when others are amplified – equal to the patterns on a soap bubble. While emerging from the chrysalis, a butterfly’s wings are soft and flexible. If it does not broaden the wings promptly enough or broad enough, they will stiffen with folds that will damage the butterfly and forbid it from being able to fly the rest of its life. The drying up routine at best takes around an hour. Every wing moves in a fairly circumlocutory way with the back wing subtly behind the fore wing – which creates the flutter effect of butterflies. The arrangement of the veins change from species to species however the patterns commonly remain the same within each family. In Medieval times, butterflies were called flutter-bys because of their eccentric flying patterns caused by this offset beating activity. Their zigzag fluttering makes their flight path erratic and serves to defend them from predators. Butterflies demand sunlight in order to fly – their bodies have got to have a temperature of approximately 53 degrees Fahrenheit or 30 degrees Celsius or their flying muscles will not be effective. Eyespots armor butterflies in that birds will approach the eyespot first. Considering butterflies can fly with up to 70% of their wings gone, a dislocated eyespot will still allow the butterfly to escape to safety. Some eyespots are hidden from view until the forewing is pushed forward so that red eyes appear and surprise the predator long enough to make an escape. The resting position of the wings of moths is referred to as airplane position. Pilots have reported seeing Monarch Butterflies as high as 10,000 feet! The Monarch (Danaus Plexippus) migrates 1,800 miles (3,000 km) annually – they fly from Mexico to a home east of the Rocky Mountains. Lepidoptera is derived from the Greek word for scale or wing because the most obvious feature that separates them from other insects is their scaled wings. Special bristles on the hind wings of moths hold the wings all together for flight. In some species, these hooks are very strong and keep the wings from separating. Some butterflies have this same feature. Butterfly hind wings overlap (from underneath) the fore wings so that they can support the fore wings in flight. Most butterfly eggs are laid on specific host plants; however, some butterflies lay their eggs in flight – particularly butterflies whose caterpillars feed on grass. Some Nymphalidae species flap and glide to fly rather than flutter.
Papuan Black Bass fishing 2014 Part-1with Gong Lei