The “MAFIA” is the paradigm of the organized crime. You ally there is who reduces the notion of this to the phenomena “MAFIA.”
Truly, no there is a MAFIA, but before several organizations, with different designations and typical manners of criminal preparing and acting way generally designated by “mobsters.”
The Italian writer Leonardo Sciascia, there are about 30 years, it defined the Mafia as “an association of criminals with ends of the associates” illicit enrichment, that it is place as middleman, imposed by the violence, between the home and the function, amongst the production and the consumption, between the citizens and the State ” while, in an additional point of view, sociologist Raimondo Catanzaro defined her lately as “she elaborates of the violence.”
The “MAFIA” (Italy – American) had origin in Sicily, in the centuries XII or XIII, since the successive occupations that this island of the South of Italy suffered along the instances, assumed as organized insurrection. Their cultural roots are rural, just if transferring for the fantastic cities (primarily Palermo) in the initial decades of this century, implanting their traditional methods of action swiftly: the “protector pays” in other words, the extortion. Initial in the fairs and markets, to proceed further on into sectors and locations like trade and building societies, demanding percentages progressively greater and, later, ending for constituting their personal building firms, that started to dominate the marketplace.
Even though, the decisive issue that it nevertheless marks it’s nowadays evolution, it takes place in the seventies when, with the dismantlement of the clandestine laboratories and of “French Connection” nets (in Marseilles – South of France), the MAFIA requires ownership of the European targeted traffic of heroine and corresponding bulky profits.
Like this, of a subordinate position (support to the traffic of the item for Sicily) in a quick space of time it began to procedure at their personal laboratories the originating from morphine it reorganizes the presence in the of the international site visitors scene. It becomes supplier from 65 to 70% of the heroine consumed in the E.UA and in the nineties, it assumes a increasing intervention in the site visitors of cocaine to Europe. At the very same time actualizing the intervention methods and areas adapted to characteristics far more “entrepreneurs” and “executives.
Sorts and strategies
Today, it is usual to speak in Mafia of the East Countries, Turkish Mafia, Japanese Mafia, Chinese Mafia, and other. Truly there are organized crime groups, that historical and culturally practically nothing has to do with the Sicilian Mafia, tends in typical with this just the strategies of criminal acting approaches.
In Italy, variety mobster’s organized criminality this divided in four various branches, out of conventional regional borders in the South of Italy: “COSA NOSTRA”, in Sicily, “CAMORRA”, in Naples “N” DRANGHETTA”, in the it would Silence “SACRED CORONA UNITA”, in the southeast.
“COSA NOSTRA” is the most critical, involving about 140 families composed among 30 to 300 base mobsters, the soldiers or “homo d” onore”. it is a structure articulate, unitary and nested.
Neapolitan A”Camorra” and Calabrian “N”dranghetta”, as effectively as “Sacred Corona Unita”, don”t have this structure vertically nested and compartmentalized but yes a horizontal structure, intending the “households” the control of the illegal activities in the complete territory of regional action (in the it “Cosa Nostra”, to avoid larger conflicts, each and every “family” has a own territory, at the level of the neighborhood).
The action basis of these organizations is the traditional activities of extortion (“protection pays”), manipulation of operating contracts, drugs targeted traffic and cash laundry.
“N”dranghetta” is the most sanguinary and violent, is tended specialized in kidnappings, i for areas of Canada, U.S.A., Australia, South of France and Germany (exactly where we identified Calabrian communities).
“Camorra” reconverted their activities of cigarettes smuggling for the most profitable activities of drugs visitors assuming a paper of virtually monopoly of cocaine amongst South America (namely Peru and Colombia) and Europe, getting “bases” in you differ European nations. In the traffic of heroine and hashish, it operates in the smaller spaces left by the activities of the it “Sews Nostra”, the 1 which has a relevant rule in nearly monopoly in the international targeted traffic of these items to the U.S.A.Their money laundry is carried out with resource to institutions of credit that controls and to firms that indirectly owns, fundamentally in the creating , transports and of the business sectors.
b) The Mafia turned into an American difficulty – beginning from the beginning of the century, accompanying the migratory currents of Sicilians for the “New Globe”, a lot of have been the “mobsters” that settled in the U.S.A. creating their “households”, the image and structure of the organization – Sicilian mother, preserving a relationship of “branch”. “Cosa Nostra” in spite of the deep relationships of collaboration that, for widespread interest, the two organizations maintains with the Mafia.
Whilst the Americans have among their main activities the exploration of game homes and prostitution, specializing at the illegal markets, the Sicilians refuse these activities, tending to articulate the action in the illegal markets with a practical presence in the legal markets.
c) In the European east, the economical and politics opening, conjugated with an evident authority crisis in several States in democratization method, gave an straightforward way to the operational development of the organized crime.
In Russia there are about 3 000 “gangs” that integrate hundreds of thousands of elements, with ramifications in all of the social actions. In other territories of the Soviet former-union (namely in the region of the Baltic), in Poland, Hungary, in former Czechoslovak and Bulgaria, organized criminal groups have been implanting and I win an active expression. With roots in the old “nomenkulatura” or in the groups that then dominated the industry, these “Mafia of the East” are devoted fundamentally to the the site visitors of drug (namely in Russia and Czech Republic), but also in weapons, prostitution and visitors of luxery automobiles (mainly in Poland face the territorial proximity with Germany), as effectively as to the I site visitors and smuggling of products of very first require, medicines, disks, cassettes and videos, as properly as luxury items (perfumes, clocks, valuable stones.).
They employed techniques variety Sicilian violence.
The mobsters nets in Russia, for instance, have an ethnic base in their constitution (azeris in the leadership tchechenians as operational armed uzbeques and tadjiques in the visitors of opium Ukrainian and Russian in the site visitors of popies and synthetic drugs tartars in the game, night clubs and terrorism the Georgian ones in the stolen vehicles the daguestaneses in the wonderful bandit’s), they are individualistic and mutually conflicting, with no any central organism of handle (to not to be it “Half” that congregates only 20 great groups of the area of Moscow).
Like this brief historical overview organized crime represents that offence segment to which are reported the illegal activities which can have an effect on far more political financial and social fields, activities that are consistently created by means of various means by person associations with a effectively-defined hierarchy, with a specialized structure and the objective of obtaining illicit profits at really high levels.
– Narcotics site visitors – in each and every year hundreds of persons are involve in narcotics traffic and several tones of drugs are confiscated. The cocaine and heroin and the most wanted.
– Person’s traffic is a new type of organized crime. Young girls and young children are transported from Eastern Europe to Western Europe for prostitution and organs transplant.
– Arts visitors – these days, 1 of the most prosperous organizations is the arts site visitors. Numerous values are brought outdoors of nations.
– Stolen cars from Western Europe specially are sell in Eastern Europe.
– Arms dealing have grow to be a new enterprise, specially for the ex-Soviet Union states.
– Income laundering. Numerous western businessmen used the Eastern European bank systems for funds laundering.
– The minor delinquency the antechamber of the organized crime. The tiny offenders unidentified however for the perpetration of robberies, thefts and false income placation, represents the engrossed segment by a serious selection by organized crime groups.
– Corruption of the major public officials is a new and dangerous form of organized crime. The organized crime groups succeeded to destroy the people’s trust via bribe and influence traffic.
– illegal goods: goods that are illegal as such the production of, trade in and at times also possession of such goods are punishable offences consider of for example narcotic substances and forged brand cigarettes.
– illegal trade in legal goods this issues black markets for goods that involve evasion of taxes, duties or import duties and are traded unlawfully on black markets think of legally created cigarettes, alcoholic beverages and fuels.
– illegal provision of solutions feel of facilitation of illegal immigrants (human smuggling) and illegal employment in prostitution (human trafficking).
The definition includes the punishment requirement to guarantee that those who commit rather harmless offences are not classed under organised crime.
Extremely curious is a overlooking comparison on some Eastern activities in common and some other regions:
Organized crime has turn into a common phenomenon in the Eastern Europe and in the ex-Soviet Union states.
Ukraine – Caucasian Mafia is the most structured criminal organization, primarily based on the blood ties. These organizations act on the same principles as the Italian mob.
Criminal groups act specifically in the drug dealing, involving much deeper to produce a new, sincere appear, via the opening of new firms and casinos, which assists to cash laundering.
Russia – the illegal guns, ammunition and explosives visitors is a a lot more and far more frequently- practiced activity by the Russian crime organization.
The principal sources of obtaining of these pointed out above are the military dumps of the ex-Soviet army and the military units that belonged to the big military industrial complex, converted to private or mix firms.
Poland – the most identified sort of organized crime from Poland is still the narcotic traffic.
The synthetic narcotics production and selling internal and external industry is greater and greater.
Slovakia, a country situated at the crossroads between East and West is in the interest of Mafia organizations with a effectively-known tradition that included it in the main drugs, guns and not for extended radioactive substances targeted traffic routes.
Slovenia is situated on the most frequently utilized Balkan-shipping route of the heroine. Besides, Slovenia is also recognized as a huge LSD drug customer.
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